Monday, August 6, 2007

Certain useful pointers on Omega 5

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PGO) contains more than 70% cis(c)9,trans(t)11,c13-18:3 as conjugated linolenic acids (CLN). Our previous short-term experiment demonstrated that seed oil from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) (BMO), which is rich in c9,t11,t13-CLN, inhibited the occurrence of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM). In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary PGO on the development of AOM-induced colonic malignancies and compared it with that of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). To induce colonic tumors, 6-week old male F344 rats were given subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks. One week before the AOM treatment they were started on diet containing 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1% PGO or 1% CLA for 32 weeks. Upon termination of the bioassay (32 weeks) colon tumors were evaluated histopathologically. AOM exposure produced colonic adenocarcinoma with an incidence of 81% and multiplicity of 1.88 +/- 1.54 at week 32. Administration of PGO in the diet significantly inhibited the incidence (AOM + 0.01% PGO, 44%, P < 0.05; AOM + 0.1% PGO, 38%, P < 0.01; AOM + 1% PGO, 56%) and the multiplicity (AOM + 0.01% PGO, 0.56 +/- 0.73, P < 0.01; AOM + 0.1% PGO, 0.50 +/- 0.73, P < 0.005; AOM + 1% PGO, 0.88 +/- 0.96, P < 0.05) of colonic adenocarcinomas, although a clear dose-response relationship was not observed at these dose levels. CLA feeding also slightly, but not significantly, reduced the incidence and multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of colonic tumors by PGO was associated with an increased content of CLA (c9,t11-18:2) in the lipid fraction of colonic mucosa and liver. Also, administration of PGO in the diet elevated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma protein in the non-tumor mucosa. These results suggest that PGO rich in c9,t11,c13-CLN can suppress AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis, and the inhibition is associated in part with the increased content of CLA in the colon and liver and/or increased expression of PPARgamma protein in the colon mucosa.
J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jul ;66 (1):11-7 10432202 [Cited: 1]
[My paper] S Y Schubert , E P Lansky , I Neeman
The antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fermented juice and seed oil flavonoids were studied. The pomegranate fermented juice (pfj) and cold pressed seed oil (pcpso) showed strong antioxidant activity close to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and green tea (Thea sinensis), and significantly greater than that of red wine (Vitis vitifera). Flavonoids extracted from pcpso showed 31-44% inhibition of sheep cyclooxygenase and 69-81% inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase. Flavonoids extracted from pfj showed 21-30% inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase though no significant inhibition of sheep cyclooxygenase. The pcpso was analyzed for its polyphenol content and fatty acid composition. Total polyphenols in pcpso showed a concentration by weight of approximately 0.015%. Pcpso fatty acid composition showed punicic acid (65.3%) along with palmitic acid (4.8%), stearic acid (2.3%), oleic acid (6.3%), linoleic acid (6.6%) and three unidentified peaks from which two (14.2%) are probably isomers of punicic acid (El-Shaarawy, M.I., Nahpetian, A., 1983). Studies on pomegranate seed oil. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel 83(3), 123-126).
Mesh-terms: Animals; Antioxidants, pharmacology; Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors, pharmacology; Flavonoids, chemistry; Fruit, chemistry; Lipoxygenase Inhibitors, pharmacology; Plant Oils, chemistry; Seeds, chemistry; Sheep;
J Med Food. ;6 (3):157-61 14585180
Chemopreventive effects of pomegranate seed oil on skin tumor development in CD1 mice.
[My paper] Justin J Hora , Emily R Maydew , Ephraim P Lansky , Chandradhar Dwivedi
Pomegranate seed oil was investigated for possible skin cancer chemopreventive efficacy in mice. In the main experiment, two groups consisting each of 30, 4-5-week-old, female CD(1) mice were used. Both groups had skin cancer initiated with an initial topical exposure of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene and with biweekly promotion using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The experimental group was pretreated with 5% pomegranate seed oil prior to each TPA application. Tumor incidence, the number of mice containing at least one tumor, was 100% and 93%, and multiplicity, the average number of tumors per mouse, was 20.8 and 16.3 per mouse after 20 weeks of promotion in the control and pomegranate seed oil-treated groups, respectively (P <.05). In a second experiment, two groups each consisting of three CD(1) mice were used to assess the effect of pomegranate seed oil on TPA-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, an important event in skin cancer promotion. Each group received a single topical application of TPA, with the experimental group receiving a topical treatment 1 h prior with 5% pomegranate seed oil. The mice were killed 5 h later, and ODC activity was assessed by radiometric method. The experimental group showed a 17% reduction in ODC activity. Pomegrante seed oil, pomega5 (5%) significantly decreased (P <.05) tumor incidence, multiplicity, and TPA-induced ODC activity. Overall, the results highlight the potential of pomegranate seed oil as a safe and effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.
Mesh-terms: 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; Administration, Topical; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, administration & dosage; Carcinogens; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Plant Oils, administration & dosage; Punicaceae, chemistry; Random Allocation; Seeds, chemistry; Skin Neoplasms, chemically induced; Skin Neoplasms, prevention & control; Skin, drug effects; Skin, pathology; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate, analogs & derivatives;
Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions ('polyphenols') from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in vitro for possible chemopreventive or adjuvant therapeutic potential in human breast cancer. The ability to effect a blockade of endogenous active estrogen biosynthesis was shown by polyphenols from fermented juice, pericarp, and oil, which inhibited aromatase activity by 60-80%. Fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols, and whole seed oil, inhibited 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 from 34 to 79%, at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1,000 microg/ml according to seed oil >> fermented juice polyphenols > pericarp polyphenols. In a yeast estrogen screen (YES) lyophilized fresh pomegranate juice effected a 55% inhibition of the estrogenic activity of 17-beta-estradiol; whereas the lyophilized juice by itself displayed only minimal estrogenic action. Inhibition of cell lines by fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols was according to estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) >> estrogen-independent (MB-MDA-231) > normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). In both MCF-7 and MB-MDA-231 cells, fermented pomegranate juice polyphenols consistently showed about twice the anti-proliferative effect as fresh pomegranate juice polyphenols. Pomegranate seed oil effected 90% inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 at 100 microg/ml medium, 75% inhibition of invasion of MCF-7 across a Matrigel membrane at 10 microg/ml, and 54% apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 estrogen receptor negative metastatic human breast cancer cells at 50 microg/ml. In a murine mammary gland organ culture, fermented juice polyphenols effected 47% inhibition of cancerous lesion formation induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The findings suggest that clinical trials to further assess chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic applications of pomegranate in human breast cancer may be warranted.
Mesh-terms: 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases, chemistry; 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene, diagnostic use; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, chemistry; Antineoplastic Agents, pharmacology; Antineoplastic Agents, therapeutic use; Breast Neoplasms, drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms, pathology; Breast, cytology; Breast, drug effects; Cell Differentiation, drug effects; Chemoprevention; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Estrogens, biosynthesis; Female; Human; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, chemically induced; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, prevention & control; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Neoplasm Metastasis; Onagraceae; Phytotherapy; Plant Extracts, chemistry; Plant Extracts, pharmacology; Plant Extracts, therapeutic use; Plant Oils, chemistry; Plant Oils, pharmacology; Plant Oils, therapeutic use; Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Tumor Cells, Cultured, drug effects; Yeasts, drug effects; Yeasts, physiology;
Lipids Health Dis. 2004 Nov 9;3 :24 15533261
Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA) on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. After 2 weeks feeding period, OLETF rats revealed obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with their progenitor LETO rats. Feeding of the diet supplemented with 9% safflower oil and 1% pomegranate seed oil (9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet) did not affect abdominal white adipose tissue weights and serum lipid levels compared with the diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil (control diet) in OLETF rats. However, the accumulated hepatic triacylglycerol was markedly decreased by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet in OLETF rats. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation were not altered by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), major storage form of fatty acid, in serum triacylglycerol were markedly higher in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats than in lean LETO rats. In addition, 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet significantly decreased MUFA levels in OLETF rats. This is the first study showing that 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA suppresses delta-9 desaturation in vivo, and we suggest that the alleviation of hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet was, at least in part, attributable to the suppression of delta-9 desaturation in OLETF rats.
Lipids. 2001 May ;36 (5):477-82 11432460 [Cited: 2]
The cytotoxicity of fatty acids from seed oils containing conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) was studied. Fatty acids from pomegranate, tung, and catalpa were cytotoxic to human monocytic leukemia cells at concentrations exceeding 5 microM for pomegranate and tung and 10 microM for catalpa, but fatty acids from pot marigold oil had no effect at concentrations ranging up to 163 microM. The main conjugated fatty acids of pomegranate, tung, catalpa, and pot marigold were cis(c)9,trans(t)11,c13-CLN (71.7%), c9,t11,t13-CLN (70.1%), t9,t11,c13-CLN (31.3%), and t8,t10,c12-CLN (33.4%), respectively. Therefore, the cytotoxicities of fatty acids from pomegranate, tung, and catalpa were supposed to be due to 9,11,13-CLN isomers. To elucidate the cytotoxicity of these CLN, we separated each CLN isomer from the fatty acid mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicities of c9,t11,c13-CLN, c9,t11,t13-CLN, and t9,t11,c13-CLN were much stronger than that of t8,t10,c12-CLN. Therefore, the higher cytotoxicity of fatty acids from pomegranate, tung, and catalpa than those from pot marigold would be derived from the different activities of 9,11,13-CLN and 8,10,12-CLN. Since there was little difference in the cytotoxicities of c9,t11,c13-CLN,c9,t11,t13-CLN, and t9,t11,c13-CLN, it is suggested that the cis/trans configuration of 9,11,13-CLN isomers had little effect on their cytotoxic effects. The mechanism of the cytotoxicity of the four fatty acids above may involve lipid peroxidation, because the order of toxicity of the fatty acids was consistent with their susceptibility to peroxidation in aqueous phase. This was supported by the decrease in the cytotoxicity of the fatty acids by addition of butylated hydroxytoluene.
Mesh-terms: Animals; Cell Division, drug effects; Cell Survival, drug effects; Human; Isomerism; Linoleic Acids, chemistry; Linoleic Acids, pharmacology; Mice; Oxidation-Reduction; Plant Oils, chemistry; Plant Oils, pharmacology; Seeds, chemistry; Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Time Factors; Tumor Cells, Cultured;
Invest New Drugs. 2005 Jan ;23:11-20 15528976
We investigated whether dissimilar biochemical fractions originating in anatomically discrete sections of the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit might act synergistically against proliferation, metastatic potential, and phosholipase A2 (PLA2) expression of human prostate cancer cells in vitro . Proliferation of DU 145 human prostate cancer cells was measured following treatment with a range of therapeutically active doses of fermented pomegranate juice polyphenols (W) and sub-therapeutic doses of either pomegranate pericarp (peel) polyphenols (P) or pomegranate seed oil (Oil). Invasion across Matrigel by PC-3 human prostate cancer cells was measured following treatment with combinations of W, P and Oil such that the total gross weight of pomegranate extract was held constant. Expression of PLA2, associated with invasive potential, was measured in the PC-3 cells after treatment with the same dosage combinations as per invasion. Supra-additive, complementary and synergistic effects were proven in all models by the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric H test at p < 0.001 for the proliferation tests, p < 0.01 for invasion, and p < 0.05 for PLA2 expression. Proliferation effects were additionally evaluated with CompuSyn software median effect analysis and showed a concentration index CI < 1, confirming synergy. The results suggest vertical as well as the usual horizontal strategies for discovering pharmacological actives in plants.
Mesh-terms: Cell Movement, drug effects; Cell Proliferation, drug effects; Chemoprevention; Collagen, metabolism; Drug Combinations; Drug Synergism; Flavonoids, therapeutic use; Humans; Laminin, metabolism; Male; Phenols, therapeutic use; Phospholipases A, metabolism; Phytotherapy; Plant Oils, therapeutic use; Prostatic Neoplasms, enzymology; Prostatic Neoplasms, prevention & control; Proteoglycans, metabolism; Punicaceae, chemistry; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Seeds, chemistry; Tumor Cells, Cultured, drug effects;
Nutrition. 2005 Oct 10; : 16226015
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of dietary pomegranate seed oil (PSO), which contains high levels of punicic acid (9c, 11t, 13c-octadecatrienoic acid), on immune function and lipid metabolism in C57BL/6N mice. METHODS: Mice were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 0.12%, or 1.2% PSO for 3 wk. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between growth patterns of the experimental groups. Splenocytes isolated from mice fed 0.12% or 1.2% PSO produced larger amounts of immunoglobulins G and M but not immunoglobulin A irrespective of stimulation with or without phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187. Dietary PSO did not affect the percentages of B cells or CD4-positive or CD8-positive T cells in splenocytes. Levels of interleukin-4, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from splenocytes were comparable among all dietary groups. Analysis of serum lipid parameters showed significant increases in serum triacylglycerol and phospholipid levels but not in total cholesterol in the PSO groups. Serum, liver, epididymal, and perirenal adipose punicic acid levels were high with increases in dietary PSO level. However, punicic acid was not detected in splenocytes for any dietary group. Interestingly, 9c, 11t-conjugated linoleic acid level could be detected in serum, liver, and adipose tissues in mice fed the 0.12% or 1.2% PSO diet. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PSO may enhance B-cell function in vivo.
J Med Food. 2004 ;7 (3):274-83 15383219
We completed a multicenter study of the effects of pomegranate cold-pressed (Oil) or supercritical CO(2)-extracted (S) seed oil, fermented juice polyphenols (W), and pericarp polyphenols (P) on human prostate cancer cell xenograft growth in vivo, and/or proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, gene expression, and invasion across Matrigel, in vitro. Oil, W, and P each acutely inhibited in vitro proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, and DU 145 human cancer cell lines. The dose of P required to inhibit cell proliferation of the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP by 50% (ED(50)) was 70 microg/mL, whereas normal prostate epithelial cells (hPrEC) were significantly less affected (ED(50) = 250 g/mL). These effects were mediated by changes in both cell cycle distribution and induction of apoptosis. For example, the androgen-independent cell line DU 145 showed a significant increase from 11% to 22% in G(2)/M cells (P <.05) by treatment with Oil (35 microg/mL) with a modest induction of apoptosis. In other cell lines/treatments, the apoptotic response predominated, for example, in PC-3 cells treated with P, at least partially through a caspase 3-mediated pathway. These cellular effects coincided with rapid changes in mRNA levels of gene targets. Thus, 4-hour treatment of DU 145 cells with Oil (35 microg/mL) resulted in significant 2.3 +/- 0.001-fold (mean +/- SEM) up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21((waf1/cip1)) (P <.01) and 0.6 +/- 0.14-fold down-regulation of c-myc (P <.05). In parallel, all agents potently suppressed PC-3 invasion through Matrigel, and furthermore P and S demonstrated potent inhibition of PC-3 xenograft growth in athymic mice. Overall, this study demonstrates significant antitumor activity of pomegranate-derived materials against human prostate cancer.
Mesh-terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic, pharmacology; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic, therapeutic use; Apoptosis, drug effects; Cell Proliferation, drug effects; Chemoprevention; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Male; Neoplasm Invasiveness, prevention & control; Phytotherapy; Plant Extracts, pharmacology; Plant Extracts, therapeutic use; Plant Oils, pharmacology; Plant Oils, therapeutic use; Prostatic Neoplasms, drug therapy; Prostatic Neoplasms, pathology; Punicaceae, chemistry; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays;
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Mar 30; : 17394332
My paper] Kazunori Koba , Jun Imamura , Asuka Akashoshi , Junko Kohno-Murase , Shoko Nishizono , Mari Iwabuchi , Kazunari Tanaka , Michihiro Sugano
Punicic acid, one of the conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) isomers, exerts a body-fat reducing effect. Although punicic acid is found in pomegranate and Tricosanthes kirilowii seeds, the amount of this fatty acid is very low in nature. The goal of this study was to produce a transgenic oil containing punicic acid. A cDNA encoding conjugase that converts linoleic acid to punicic acid was isolated from T. kirilowii, and the plant expression vector, pKN-TkFac, was generated. The pKN-TkFac was introduced into Brassica napus by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. As a result, a genetically modified rapeseed oil (GMRO) containing punicic acid was obtained, although its proportion to the total fatty acids was very low (approximately 2.5%). The effects of feeding GMRO in ICR CD-1 male mice were then examined. Wild-type rapeseed (B. napus) oil (RSO) containing no CLN was used as a control oil. For reference oils, RSO-based blended oils were prepared by mixing with different levels of pomegranate oil (PO), either 2.5% (RSO + PO) or 5.0% (RSO + 2PO) punicic acid. Mice were fed purified diets containing 10% of either RSO, RSO + PO, RSO + 2PO, or GMRO for 4 weeks, and dietary PO dose-dependently reduced perirenal adipose tissue weight with a significant difference between the RSO group and the RSO + 2PO group. GMRO, as compared to RSO, lowered the adipose tissue weight to the levels observed with RSO + 2PO. The liver triglyceride level of the RSO + 2PO and GMRO groups but not that of the RSO + PO group was lower than that of the RSO group. The RSO + 2PO and GMRO groups, but not the RSO + PO group, had increased carnitine-palmitoyltransferase activity in the liver and brown adipose tissue. These results showed that dietary GMRO, even at a dietary punicic acid level as low as 0.25 wt % of diet, reduced body fat mass and altered liver lipid metabolism in mice and was more effective than an equal amount of punicic acid from PO. Keywords: Conjugated linolenic acid; punicic acid; transgenic rapeseed; pomegranate seed; adipose tissue; mice.
J Endocrinol. 1964 Apr ;29 :91-2 14166497
My paper] A SHARAF , S A NIGM
Mesh-terms: Castration; Estradiol; Estrogens; Oils; Ovary; Pharmacology; Rabbits; Seeds; Uterus; Vagina;
Phytochemistry. 2004 Jan ;65 (2):233-41 14732284
During recent years, phytoestrogens have been receiving an increasing amount of interest, as several lines of evidence suggest a possible role in preventing a range of diseases, including the hormonally dependent cancers. In this context, various parts of the pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum; Punicaceae), e.g. seed oil, juice, fermented juice and peel extract, have been shown to exert suppressive effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. On-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-BCD-MS) was applied to rapidly profile the estrogenic activity in the pomegranate peel extract. The crude mixture was separated by HPLC, after which the presence of biologically active compounds, known or unknown, was detected by means of an on-line beta-estrogen receptor (ER) bioassay. Chemical information, such as molecular weight and MS/MS fingerprint, was obtained in real time by directing part of the HPLC effluent towards a mass spectrometer. Using this approach in total three estrogenic compounds, i.e. luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol, were detected and identified by comparing the obtained molecular weights and negative ion APCI MS/MS spectra with the data of an estrogenic compound library. Although well known in literature and widely distributed in nature, the presence of these phytoestrogenic compounds in pomegranate peel extract was not reported previously. Compared to traditional screening approaches of complex mixtures, often characterized by a repeating cycle of HPLC fractionation and biological screening, LC-BCD-MS was shown to profoundly accelerate the time required for compound description and identification.
Mesh-terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, instrumentation; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, methods; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal, isolation & purification; Flavonoids, isolation & purification; Glycosylation; Kaempferols, isolation & purification; Plant Extracts, chemistry; Punicaceae, chemistry; Quercetin, isolation & purification; Spectrum Analysis, Mass, methods;
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 8; : 16221534
[My paper] Muhammad Nadeem Aslam , Ephraim Philip Lansky , James Varani
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient fruit with exceptionally rich ethnomedical applications. The peel (pericarp) is well regarded for its astringent properties; the seeds for conferring invulnerability in combat and stimulating beauty and fertility. Here, aqueous fractions prepared from the fruit's peel and fermented juice and lipophilic fractions prepared from pomegranate seeds were examined for effects on human epidermal keratinocyte and human dermal fibroblast function. Pomegranate seed oil, but not aqueous extracts of fermented juice, peel or seed cake, was shown to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation in monolayer culture. In parallel, a mild thickening of the epidermis (without the loss of ordered differentiation) was observed in skin organ culture. The same pomegranate seed oil that stimulated keratinocyte proliferation was without effect on fibroblast function. In contrast, pomegranate peel extract (and to a lesser extent, both the fermented juice and seed cake extracts) stimulated type I procollagen synthesis and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1; interstitial collagenase) production by dermal fibroblasts, but had no growth-supporting effect on keratinocytes. These results suggest heuristic potential of pomegranate fractions for facilitating skin repair in a polar manner, namely aqueous extracts (especially of pomegranate peel) promoting regeneration of dermis, and pomegranate seed oil promoting regeneration of epidermis.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004 Aug ;13 (4):345-8 15554563
[My paper] R Mehta , E P Lansky
We previously reported anticancer effects of pomegranate extracts in human breast cancer cells in vitro and also chemopreventive activity of pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W) in a mouse mammary organ culture (MMOC). In the present study we decided to expand the MMOC investigations to also include an evaluation of the potential chemopreventive efficacy of a purified chromatographic peak of W (Peak B), and also of whole pomegranate seed oil. In brief, an MMOC was established according to a known method. For the first 10 days of culture, the glands were treated with pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W), a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) peak separated from W (peak B), or pomegranate seed oil (Oil, and on day 3, exposed to the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and for 10 days treated with the putative pomegranate chemopreventive. The glands were subsequently harvested and tumours counted by visual inspection. While W effected a 42% reduction in the number of lesions compared with control, peak B and pomegranate seed oil, Pomega5 each effected an 87% reduction. The results highlight enhanced breast cancer preventive potential both for the purified compound peak B and for pomegranate seed oil, both greater than that previously reported for pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols.
Mesh-terms: Animals; Chemoprevention, methods; Chi-Square Distribution; Female; Mammary Glands, Animal, drug effects; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Models, Animal; Organ Culture Techniques; Plant Extracts, pharmacology; Probability; Punicaceae, chemistry; Sensitivity and Specificity;
Angiogenesis. 2003 ;6 (2):121-8 14739618
[My paper] Masakazu Toi , Hiroko Bando , Cheppail Ramachandran , Steven J Melnick , Atsushi Imai , Rose S Fife , Raymond Eric Carr , Tsutomu Oikawa , Ephraim Philip Lansky
We previously showed pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice polyphenols to retard oxidation and prostaglandin synthesis, to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and to promote breast cancer cell apoptosis. Here we evaluated the anti-angiogenic potential of these materials in several ways. We checked a possible effect on angiogenic regulation by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the conditioned media of estrogen sensitive (MCF-7) or estrogen resistant (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells, or immortalized normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), grown in the presence or absence of pomegranate seed oil (SESCO) or fermented juice polyphenols (W). VEGF was strongly downregulated in MCF-10A and MCF-7, and MIF upregulated in MDA-MB-231, overall showing significant potential for downregulation of angiogenesis by pomegranate fractions. An anti-proliferative effect on angiogenic cells was shown in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and in myometrial and amniotic fluid fibroblasts, and inhibition of HUVEC tubule formation demonstrated in an in vitro model employing glass carrier beads. Finally, we showed a significant decrease in new blood vessel formation using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model in vivo. 'In sum, these varied studies employing different models in different laboratories overall demonstrate for the first time an anti-angiogenic potential of pomegranate fractions, suggesting further in vivo and clinical investigations (for updates:
J Nutr. 2006 Aug ;136 (8):2153-9 16857834
We showed previously that alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9Z11E13E-18:3) is converted to 9Z11E-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in rats through a Delta13-saturation reaction. To investigate this further, we examined the absorption and metabolism of alpha-ESA in rat intestine using a lipid absorption assay in lymph from the thoracic duct. In this study, we used 4 test oils [tung oil, perilla oil, CLA-triacylglycerol (TG), and pomegranate seed oil, containing alpha-ESA, alpha-linolenic acid (LnA; 9Z12Z15Z-18:3), CLA, and punicic acid (PA; 9Z11E13Z-18:3), respectively]. Emulsions containing the test oils were administered to rats, and lymph from the thoracic duct was collected over 24 h. The positional and geometrical isomerism of CLA produced by PA metabolism was determined using GC-electron impact (EI)-MS and (13)C-NMR, respectively; the product was confirmed to be 9Z11E-CLA. A part of alpha-ESA and PA was converted to 9Z11E-CLA 1 h after administration; therefore the lymphatic recoveries of alpha-ESA and PA were modified by the amount of recovered CLA. Cumulative recovery of CLA, alpha-ESA, and PA was lower than that of LnA only during h 1 (P <> CLA > alpha-ESA = PA. The conversion ratio of alpha-ESA to 9Z11E-CLA was higher than that of PA to 9Z11E-CLA over 24 h (P < 0.05). These results indicated that alpha-ESA and PA are slowly absorbed in rat intestine, and a portion of these fatty acids is quickly converted to 9Z11E-CLA.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 10; : 17157465
[My paper] Ephraim P Lansky , Robert A Newman
The last 7 years have seen over seven times as many publications indexed by Medline dealing with pomegranate and Punica granatum than in all the years preceding them. Because of this, and the virtual explosion of interest in pomegranate as a medicinal and nutritional product that has followed, this review is accordingly launched. The pomegranate tree, Punica granatum, especially its fruit, possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. The tree/fruit can be divided into several anatomical compartments: (1) seed, (2) juice, (3) peel, (4) leaf, (5) flower, (6) bark, and (7) roots, each of which has interesting pharmacologic activity. Juice and peels, for example, possess potent antioxidant properties, while juice, peel and oil are all weakly estrogenic and heuristically of interest for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and sequellae. The use of juice, peel and oil have also been shown to possess anticancer activities, including interference with tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and angiogenesis. These may be associated with plant based anti-inflammatory effects, The phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of all Punica granatum components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment and prevention of cancer, as well as other diseases where chronic inflammation is believed to play an essential etiologic role.
Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr ;93:433-8 15946404
[My paper] Lin Yang , Ka Yiu Leung , Ying Cao , Yu Huang , W M N Ratnayake , Zhen-Yu Chen
Conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) refers to a group of octadecatrienoic acid isomers that have three double bonds in conjugation. Both pomegranate and tung seed oils are rich in CLN but the major isomer in the former is cis9,trans11,cis13 while in the latter it is cis9,trans11,trans13. The present study examined the effects of CLN, isolated from either pomegranate seed oil or tung seed oil, and alpha-linolenic acid (LN), isolated from flaxseed oil, on serum cholesterol levels in male hamsters (body weight 105 g; age 10 weeks) fed a 0.1% cholesterol and 10% lard diet, for a period of 6 weeks. All hamsters were allowed free access to food and fluid. The blood samples were taken by bleeding from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube under light ether anaesthesia after overnight fasting at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. It was found that supplementation of CLN at levels of 12.2-12.7 g/kg diet exhibited no significant effect on serum cholesterol level while LN at a similar level of supplementation had serum cholesterol reduced by 17-21% compared with the control diet containing no LN and CLN. Supplementation of CLN and LN significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol but no effect was observed on heart and kidney cholesterol levels. It was concluded that LN possessed hypocholesterolaemic activity while CLN had no effect on blood cholesterol, at least in hamsters.
Mesh-terms: Animals; Anticholesteremic Agents, pharmacology; Cholesterol, administration & dosage; Cholesterol, analysis; Cholesterol, blood; Comparative Study; Cricetinae; Dietary Fats, administration & dosage; Dietary Supplements; Flax; Kidney, chemistry; Linolenic Acids, pharmacology; Liver, chemistry; Male; Mesocricetus; Myocardium, chemistry; Plant Oils; Punicaceae; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Seeds; alpha-Linolenic Acid, pharmacology;


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